ሌላ ምስ ፍትሕ መሓሪ። ብሙሴ በኪት ካልኣይ ክፍሊ።

ሌላ ምስ ፍትሕ መሓሪ።

ካልኣይ ክፍሊ።

07/08/21

ብሙሴ በኪት።

    ኣብቲ ቀዳማይ ክፍሊ ፍትሕ መሓሪ ብመን መዓስ ናይ ሕልና ሕጊ ኾይኑ ከም ዚወጸን “ወዲ” 420 ዓመት ምስ ኰነ ገለ ኻብኡ ብቅሺ ሮደኝ (ሩደን) ኣብ 1913 ብጽሑፍ ከም ዚሰፈረ ኣብ ትሕቲ ክልተ ኣርእስቲ ሕጽር ብዚበለ መልክዑ ሪኢና ነይርና። እተን ክልተ ኣርእስቲ ግደታታትን ሓልዮትን ምስቲ ዚመስላካ ፍጡር (Obligations Involving Fellow Creatures) ከምእውን እንዶ (common sense) ናይ ፍትሕ መሓሪ ሪኢና ። ሎሚ ድማ ኣብዚ ሳልሳይ ኣርእስቲ እንርእዮ (3) መርዓን ስድራ ቤታዊ ዝምድናን ዝሙት (Marriage, Family Relationships, Sexual Immorality) ይኸውን። ብሓጺሩ ሕጼን መርዓን ሓላፍነቱ ናብ ወለዲ እዩ፡ ይብል ፍትሕ መሓሪ። ወዲ፡ ዓቕሚ ኣዳም ምስ በጽሔ ሓላፍነት ናይ ኣደ እዩ፡ ንበዓል ቤታ “እዚ ወዲ ከቢቡ ብጽሕነትቱ ኣኸለ እሞ ጓል ክስቶ ኣምጽኣሉ “እትብል ። ናይዚ ቅዱስ ሓሳብ ምንጩ ኣደ እያ። ምኽንያቱ፡ ኣደ ሃናጺት ስድራ ቤት ስለዝዀነት። ቅድሚ መርዓ ሕጼ ከም ዝግበር ኩላትና ንፈልጦ ኢና። ኣብ መዓልቲ ሕጼ (ምዕል መድሓራት) ንስድራ ቤት እንዳ ጓል ዚወሃብ ነገር እንታይ ኸም ዚዀነ ፍትሕ መሓሪ ደንጊግዎ ኣሎ ። ንሱ ድማ “ዝክራን” ይበሃል።  (nuptial gift) እቲ ኣቦ ወዲ ንስድራ ቤት እንዳ ጓል ነቲ “ዝክራን” እንተ ደለየ ብገንዘብ ወይ ድማኒ ብከብቲ ይህብ ። እቲ ብገንዘብ ዚወሃብ ዝክራን “እብ ሙት”ይበሃል። እቲ ብከብቲ ዚወሃብ ድማኒ “እብ ረኣሱ “ ይብሃል’። ’ፍትሕ መሓሪ ሽግር ናይ ሰብ ኣብ ግምት ብምእታው ነፍስ ወከፍ ሰብ ከከም ክእለቱን ዓቕሙን “ዝክራን” ክህብ ከም ዘለዎ የተሓሳስብ። “ዝክራን” ዳርጋ ትሕጃ ወይ ዋሕስ ንስድራ ቤት ናይታ ጓል ዚወሃብ እዩ። ምናልባት እቲ ኣቦ ጓል ከይጠልም ተባሂሉ ዝወሃብ ህያብን ውዕለትን ድማ እዩ። ውዕለት ክበሃል ዀሎ ኣብ መርዓ ብመልክዕ ገዝሚ (መትሎ) ኣቦ ጓል ንኣቦ ወዲ ብዕጽፊ ወይ ኣዝይድ ኣቢሎ ዚህቦ እዩ። ኣብቶም ቀዳሞት ኣይሁድ እንድሕሪ ሪኢና ኣብ ሕጼ ፣ “ዝክራን “ኣይወሃብን እዩ ። ኣብ መዓልቲ መርዓ እቲ ኣቦ ወዲ ነቲ ኣቦ ጓል ኣሓን ገንዘብን ይህቦ ። እዚ እቲ “ዋጋ” (ዓውል) ናይታ ጓሉ እዪ። ብኻልእ ኣባሃህላ “ዋጋ ናይ መርዓት” (Bride-Price) ወይ ካሕሳ (Compensation) ማለት እዩ።  ምኽንያቱ ድማ፡ ጓል ኣንሰተይቲ ኣብ ሓንቲ ስድራ ቤት ናይ ኣይሁድ ፍርቂ እቶት ናይታ ስድራ ቤት እተበርክት ኣፍራይት (Productive) ዜጋ ስለ ዚዀነት እዩ። ናታ ዘይምህላው እቲ ቁጠባዊ ህይወት ናይታ ስድራ ቤት ይቀጥን።  እቲ ስቶክ ማርከት (Stock Market) ናይታ ስድራ ቤት ንቁልቁል ገጹ ይኸይድ ከም ማለት እዩ። ኣሃሃሃሃሃ። (ኢንሳይት ገጽ 340ን ኦሪት ዘፍጥረት ምዕራፍ 34 ሕጡብ 11,12 ኦሪት ዘፍጥረት ምዕራፍ 31ሕጡብ 14 -15 ርአ።) ራሄልን ልያን ኣስተማሲለን እንታይ ከም ዚበላ ንገንዘብ።  ፍትሕ መሓሪ ብኣንጻሩ ኣብ መዓልቲ ሕጼ ፣ ኣቦ ወዲ “ዝክራን” ክህብ ኣብ መዓልቲ መርዓ ድማ ኣቦ ጓል ንኣቦ ወዲ(መትሎ) ገዝሚ ክህብ ዝወሰነሉ ምኽንያት እታ ጓል ንስድራ ቤታ ዘበርከተቶ ወይ ዘገልገለቶ ጻማ ኣብ ግምት አእትዩ ምስ ሰብኣያን ደቃን ክትናበረሉ ኢሉ እዩ። ኣብቲ ሕጊ ናይ ኣይሁድ እታ ጓል ንመሸጣ፡ ኣብ ፍትሕ መሓሪ ግን ንሺሻይ ገበታ! ምስ ሺሻያ እንዳ ሓማኣ ተኣቱ። ክቡራትን ክቡራንን ደቅ(ደቂ) ሃይገት በቲ ጥንታዊ ኣቦሓጎና መሓሪ ኽንኰርዕዶ ይግበኣና፧ እወ ኣዚና! “ኣደይ እትብሎ ንጐይበይ፣ ኣቦይ ዚብሎ ንገዝማይ “እምዬ ለትብሎ እግል ዕጎትዬ ወኣቡዬ ለልብሎ እግል መትሎዬ።” ተባሂሉ እንድዩ። “ጐይቢ” ካብ መሬት እተሰርሐ መትሃሓዝ ጠስሚ ወይ መዓር ክኸውን ኰሎ ኣባና ኣብ መንሳዕ ኣደ ንጓላ እተግዝሞ እቲ“ዕጎት” እንብሎ እዩ። ሕጂ እቲ ስድራ ቤታዊ ዝምድናታት ንርአ። (Family relationships) ፍትሕ መሓሪ ዝምድና ናይ ስድራ ቤታት ምዕሩሩይ ምእንቲ ክኸውን ሓላፍነት ናይ ሰብኡትን ናይ ኣንስትን ናይ ደቆምን ፈልዩ ኣቀሚጥዎ ኣሎ ። ሰብኡት ክሓርሱን ኽሓልቡን ንስድራ ቤቶም ዜድሊ ከማልኡ ድሕንነት ስድራ ቤቶም ከራጋግጹ ግደታ ኣለዎም። ኣንስቲ እውን ናይ ውሽጢ ገዛ ስራሕ ክሰርሓ ካብ መግቢ ምድላው ክሳብ ቈልዑ ምዕባይ ግድታ ኣለወን ይብል። ኣቦ ኣብ ልዕሊ ውላዱ ክሳብ ሓዳሩ ዚወጽእ ምልኪ ኣለዎ ። ምልኪ ኣለዎ ክበሃል ዀሎ ይገፍዖ ማለት ኣይኮነን የግዳስ ይመኽሮን የለብሞን ። ወዲ፣ ምስ ተመርዓወ፡ ንሱን መርዓቱን ንሓደ ዓመት ቀለቦም ካብ እንዳ ኣቦኡን ኣዲኡን ይኹን ይብል ፍትሕ መሓሪ።  እዚ ግዜ እዚ ድማኒ “ድርወት”ይበሃል። ማለት እታ መርዓት ሓማታ ተገልግላ። እዚ ግዜ እዚ ኣብ መንጎ እታ መርዓትን ሓማታን ፍቅሪ ሓማትን ሰይቲ ወድን ዚምዕብለሉ ግዜ እዩ። ድሕሪ ሓደ ዓመት ግን ክሳብ ንብረቱ ዚምቀል ካብቲ ዚኣቱ እኽሊ ሓደ ሲሶ ይወሃቦ። ካብኡ ንደሓር መርዓቱ ለንቂጣ ሰንኪታ ትቀልቦ ይብል፣ ፍትሕ መሓሪ። እዚ እቲ ስድራ ቤታዊ ዝምድናን ፍቕርን ክድንፍዕ ዚተደንገገ ይመስል። ዚተመርዓወ  ውላድካ ብጽሒቱ መዓስ ከም ዚምቀል ኣብቲ ናይ ውርሻ ኣንቀጽ ዳሕራይ ክንርእዮ ኢና። ፍትሕ መሓሪ፡ ውላድ ንኣቦኡ ከኽብርን ክፈርህን ፡ ንኣዲኡ ዝያዳ ከፍቅርን ይእዝዝ። “ወዲ፡ ሓዳሩ ምስ ወጸ እሞ፡ ብገለ ነገር ምስ ኣቦኡ እንተ ድኣ ተኻሲሶም ኣብ ቅድሚ ዳኛ ደው ምስ በሉ እቲ ወዲ ንኣቦኡ ይሓንግሮ” ይብል ፍትሕ መሓሪ። ምኽንያቱ ይብል ፍትሕ መሓሪ ፣ ምኽንያቱ “ለዕባያት ኣቡሁ እግል ልፍቃድ” ኣቦኡ ከመይ ገሩ ከም ዜዕበዮ ክዝክር ምእንቲ ። (ፍትሕ መሓሪ ገጽ 128 ክፍሊ 19 ኣንቀጽ 3 ርአ።) ስለዚ ፡ ኣኽብሮትን ስነ ስርዓትን ክሳብ ዘሎ ስድራ ቤታዊ ዝምድናታት ኣይብተኽን እዩ።  ሕጂ ብዛዕባ ዝሙት (Sexual Immorality) ፍትሕ መሓሪ እንታይ ከም ዚብል ንርአ። ሓደ ሰብኣይ ንሓንቲ በዓልቲ ሓዳር ደፊሩ ሽዑ ንሽዑ እንተ ድኣ ተረኺቡ ይቀተል እታ ሰበይቲ እውን ትቀተል ይብል ። ይኹን እምበር ሽዑ ንሽዑ እንተ ዘይተቕትሉ እቲ ዝሰሓተ ስብኣይ ሓፍ ዘይብል ካሕሳ ነቲ ሰብኣይ ናይታ ሰበይቲ ይኽፍል። እታ ሰበይቲ ድማ ትፈታሕ ካብ  ዓዲ እውን ትሰጐግ ይብል። (ምን ዐድ ትፍገር ልብል ። ምን ዐድ ትፍገር እት መርገማ ሃለት።) ኣብ ልዕሊ ሓዳሩ ዚዝሙ ሰብኣይ ወይስ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሓዳራ እትዝሙ ሰበይቲ መቅጻዕቱ ቕትለት (Capital Punishment) እዩ። ይኹን እምበር፡ ፍትሕ መሓሪ ነቲ መቅጻዓቲ ቕትለት ናይ ግዜ ገደብ (Statue of Limitation) ገርሉ። ምኽንያቱ እቶም ዚዝምዉ ሓጥያት ፈጺሞም እምበር ህይወት ኣየሕለፉን ። ስለዚ ህይወት ብህይወት (a life for a life) ከም ዚወሃብ ኣጸቢቑ ቅድሚ ምሁራት ፈላጣት ሕጊ ተገንዚብዎ ነይሩ።  ዚተመርዓወ ሰብኣይ ነታ ሔምኡ ኣፍቂዱ ብቃል ኪዳን ካልእ ሰበይቲ ክምርዖ ፍትሕ መሓሪ የፍቅድ ። እታ ካልኣይቲ ሰበይቲ “ጸመር” ትበሃል ። እዚ ኣብ ክንዲ ብዝሙት ብኣጋባብ እንተ ዀይኑ እቲ ስድራ ቤታዊ ዝምድና ይዕቆብ ዝሙት እውን ይዕገት ዚብል ኣራኣእያ ዚነበሮ ይመስል ኣባሓጎና ፡ መሓሪ። ሓደ ነቲ ስድራ ቤታዊ ዚምድና የደልድል እዪ ተብሂሉ ዚተፍቅደ መርዓ ኣሎ። እዚ መርዓ እዚ(Levirate Marriage) ለቪረት መረጅ ይበሃል ። ሰበይቲ ምዉት ሓውኻ ምምርዓው ወይ ምውራሰ ማለት እዩ። ሓደ ሓውኻ ተመርዕዩስ ውላድ ወይ ሓድጊ ከይገደፈ እንተ ሞተ ሰበይቱ ትምርዖ ወይ ትወርስ። ወዲ እንድሕሪ ወለዲትልካ  ስም ናይ ሓውኻ ተውጻኣሉ ምእንቲ ስሙ ኣብቲ ስድራ ቤታዊ ሰንሰለት ወይ ዝምድና ክትቕጽል ከይትሕከኽ ምእንቲ ። ስሙ እግል ኢትትከረ። ስሙ ከይትርሳዕ። ስምካ ትትከረ ዲብ መርገማ ሃለት። ስምካ ትረሳዕ ኣብ መርገም እውን ኣሎ። ንምዃኑ ፡ እቲ ምዉት ሓውካ ውላድ እንተ ሓደገ እውን ሰበይቱ ክትወርስ ትኽእል ኢኻ፡ ምእንቲ እቶም ቈልዑ ደቂ ሓውካ ኢልካ ። ወዲ እንተ ወሊድካላ ድማኒ ስም ሓውካ ተውጻኣሉ። እቲ ህያው ሓው ነታ ሰይቲ ሓዉ ከይወረሰ ካብታ ሔምኡ ወዲ ምስ ወለደ  ስም ሓዉ ክህቦ ይኽእል እንድዩ ዚብል ሕቶ ክለዓል ይከኣል እዩ። እወ፡ ይኽእል እዩ ። ይኹን እምበር እታ መበለት ሰይቲ ሓዉ ካብ ናይቲ ምዉት  ስድራ ቤት ሔማኣ ወዲ፡ ወሊዳ ስም ምዉት ሰብኣያ ተዋሂብዎስ “ቤቱ” እንደ ገና ክትህነጽ ትምኒታን ሃንቀውታ ልባ ኣቦሓጎና መሐሪ ስለ ዘንበቦ ከም ሕጊ ገይሩ ኣስፊርዎ ። (ቤቱ ክብል ከለኹ household ዝምድናዊ ስድራ ቤት ማለታይ እየ) እዚ ኣንቀጽ እዚ ከንተባይ ብእምነት ወድ ተድሮስ ኣብ 1875 (Amend) ኣማሓይሽዎ ወይ ቀይርዎ ነይሩ እዩ ።

ከንተባይ ብእምነት ኣብ 1889

ንሱ ድማ ኸምዚ ዝስዕብ እዩ። “ህያው ሓው፡ ሰበይቲ ምዉት ሓዉ፡ ክወርስ ይኽእል፡ እንተ ፈተወት” ኢልዎ። ስለዚ እንተ “ፈተወት” እንድሕሪ ኢሉ እቲ ዚተቀየረ ወይ ዚተማሓየሸ ኣንቀጽ “ሓደ ሓው፡ ሰበይቲ ምዉት ሓዉ፡ ክምርዖ ወይ ክወርስ ኣለዎ፡ ንሳ ትፍቶ ኣይትፍቶ “ዚብል ነይሩ ክኸውን ኣለዎ ይብል።  እዚ እውን ካልኣይ መልሲ ነዛ ኣቀድም ኣቢለ ወስ ዘበልክዋ ሕቶ ክምልሽ ይኽእል እዩ። ካልእ እውን፡ በዓልቲ ቤትካ እንተ ሞተት ዚተፋተሔት ወይ ዘይተመርዓወት ዘማኻ ሓፍቲ ነፍስሄር ሰበይትኻ እንተ ድኣ ኣልያ ክትምርዓዋ ትኽእል ። ተኸታሊ እምነት ክርስትና ኹን እምነት እስልምና ቢዘይግድስ። እዚ እውን ኣርኪብናሉ ኢና።  እቲ “Levirate” ለቪረት ዚብል ቃል ካብቲ (Levi) ዚብል ቃል ናይ ላቲን ዚተውስደ ክኸውን ኰሎ ትርጉሙ “ሓው ሓሙትካ”(Husband’s Brother) ማለት እዩ። እዚ ካብ ኢንሳይት ቲኦክራቲካዊ መጽሓፍ ሃሰስ ኢለ ዚረኸብክዎ ቃል ምስ ሰበይቲ ምዉት ሓውኻ ነበር እትገብሮ መርዓ እንታይ ከም ዚበሃል ኣጸቢቁ ገሊጹለይ።  ስለዚ ክቡራትን ክቡራንን ሓበረታ፣ ነቐፌታ፣ ወይ መአረምታ፣ እንተሎ ኣይትሕመቁ ። ክሳብ ኣብቲ ሳልሳይ ክፍሊ ንራኸብ ደሓን ኰኑ ። ደሓን ኰኑ ኪብክል ከለኹ ጽቡቅ ጥዕና ንዓኹም ማለተይ እየ።

ይቕጽል…….

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5 Comments

  1. “The question that comes to my mind is, in today’s world/societies and communities as well as among our own people with the way of political social, and ethical norms, we seemed/tend to focus more on isolating ourselves from each other’s lives and attempt to approach each other with the notion of do not enacts/imposes on me kind of rendezvous attitudes that make others reserve themselves from engaging and from creating a healthy path of communication, Where do we go wrong in this phase of time and place that supposedly to be a time for more openness, a time of embracing diversity and each other, and a time for enriching and expanding healthy social norms and traits that we all inherited or passed into us all from the very astute forefathers” – Aziza Awate

    Excellent question!! Thank you, Aziza, weleche for your keen observation. I share your frustrations. Your question reminds me of similar questions posed by one of my dear friends during our conversation of the current situation of our world, society and communities a while back. As you are, he was wondering why people are no longer interested in doing good things for their societies and communities in unison. I too got to thinking about our lack of cohesiveness. People go about their daily lives as if everything were fine. Could it be that through fragmentation and divisiveness and self imposed segregation, we simply don’t have the resolve or commitment to accomplishment much in unity? Have our shared values disintegrated to the point that we believe in nothing strongly as a group? Have we become so lacking in a collective spirit and purpose that we can no longer meet new challenges as a group? Are we selfishly only here for ourselves? Obviously, there are more questions than answers.

    Your question also reminds me of the “We” and “They” talk, adapted from Rudyard Kipling’s, “Friends of the Family.

    “Friends of the Family”

    Father, mother, Sister, brother and Me say

    All the people like us are We,

    And every one else is They.

    And They live over the sea,

    While We live over the way,

    But- would you believe it- They look upon We

    As only a sort of They!

    We eat pork and beef

    With bone-handed knives.

    While They gobble Their rice off a leaf

    Are horrified out of Their lives.

    And They who live up a tree,

    And feast on grubs and clay,

    Look upon We

    As simply a disgusting They!

    We shoot birds with a gun

    They stick lion with spears

    They dress in underwear

    We dress up to our ears.

    They like Their friends for tea

    We like Our friends to stay;

    And, after all that, They look upon We

    As an utterly ignorant They.

    We eat kitchen food.

    We have doors that latch

    They drink milk or blood,

    Under an open thatch.

    We have doctors

    They have Wizards

    And They look upon We

    As a quite barbaric They.

    All good people agree,

    And all good people say,

    And nice people, like US, are We

    And every one else is They.

    But, if you cross over the sea,

    Instead of just over the way,

    You may end up looking on We

    As only a sort of They!

    I too fervently hope!!!!

    Gherezgher Bekit

  2. Thanks, Uncle Mussie Bekit,
    An addition of a (continued series-part two analyzing Fitih Mehari’s innards, (the logical data sharing and as always it is very impressive. Reading this second part in its entirety, giving it a deep concentrated full focus to digest of how it was created, and for what purpose in time and place and not to mention the broad uses and the benefits that yielded for all the dwellers nearly 400-500 years ago, indeed It is so astonishing and ethically uplifting to learn of how the forefathers lived and maintained their due relationships with each other in elated and unfortunate occasions. Indeed, they were very faithful, tolerant, and well accentuated. Reading all that though, one thing that comes to my mind is. in today’s world, particularly, when it comes to religion, beliefs, and practices, it appears to be that we make a big uproar/commotion about it and as a result, we lack all the tactfulness and the integrity to seriously preserve/maintain of some of the healthy traits that the forefathers inherited us assiduously. It is my immense hope that this kind of data sharing will renew our deep thought and will teach us to help us gain some measured outcome in an incredibly positive way. The question that comes to my mind is, in today’s world/societies and communities as well as among our own people with the way of political social, and ethical norms, we seemed/tend to focus more on isolating ourselves from each other’s lives and attempt to approach each other with the notion of do not enacts/imposes on me kind of rendezvous attitudes that make others reserve themselves from engaging and from creating a healthy path of communication, Where do we go wrong in this phase of time and place that supposedly to be a time for more openness, a time of embracing diversity and each other, and a time for enriching and expanding healthy social norms and traits that we all inherited or passed into us all from the very astute forefathers, will it be possible for an attitude and time to reverse itself to bring back all the good norms of the past? Fervently hope.

    Aziza Awate

  3. Merhba Dr. Fekak. As you know Ftih Mehari existed and practiced many many years before the arrival of the Europeans. I suspect they did when they were practicing the Orthodox Tewhado faith of Christianity, but not the Christianity we know today. As you know, when the locals were narrating the traditions and customs to Ruden, they mentioned that some of the traditions were practiced in the past and not at the time they were narrating the stories.(see Dgim Mensae page 63 and Ftih Mehari page 119 section 12 article 8) The other factor could be the influence of the Europeans when they introduced their own faith of Christianity. They changed some to fit their own way of thinking and beliefs. Thank you for your question. Make it a good day. Huka Musa.

  4. Fantastic! Intresting second edition Governor!
    Question. In Islam it is allowed to marry your deseased brother’s wife religously. Was it allowed for the Christian Mensa to marry their brothers wife? Or did the christians put that policy in practice?

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